December 8, 2022
GMAT RC CHALLENGE P22

GMAT RC CHALLENGE P22

Tiếp tục series 36 hardest GMAT RC passages, hôm nay chúng ta hãy thử sức với bài đọc số 22 nhé. 

Để đạt được hiệu quả tối đa khi đọc bài chia sẻ này, các bạn vui lòng:

Bước 1: Vào link gmatclub để làm bài đọc

Bước 2: Check lại đáp án của mình với quick explanations tại bài viết này

Passage 22/36: Changes in the volume of unemployment are governed by three fundamental forces: the growth of the labor force, the increase in output per man-hour, and the growth of total demand for goods and services…

LINK BÀI ĐỌC TẠI ĐÂY

Table of Contents / Nội Dung Chính

RECAP các bước làm bài

Bước 1: Đọc bài đọc và dừng lại vài giây tóm tắt ý chính ngay sau mỗi đoạn nhỏ

Bước 2: Phát biểu Main Point / Primary Purpose hay nội dung chính của bài

Bước 3: Đọc câu hỏi, xác định vị trí liên quan trong Passage và Pre-think đáp án (Tuyệt đối không đọc đáp án trước, trừ khi câu hỏi không gợi ý được ta cần xem lại phần nào trong Passage HOẶC bạn đã nhớ rõ Passage như in)

Bước 4: Đọc nhanh answer choices và chọn đáp án gần với Pre-think nhất

Bây giờ, chúng ta cùng giải Passage 22/36 nhé!

Đáp án Passage 22/36

Summary

Para 1: Fundamental forces govern volume of unemployment

Cụ thể:

Changes in the volume of unemployment are governed by three fundamental forces: the growth of the labor force, the increase in output per man-hour, and the growth of total demand for goods and services. (3 nhân tố đó là: tốc độ tăng trưởng lực lượng lao động (labor forces), tốc độ tăng năng suất lao động (productivity) và tốc độ tăng trưởng nhu cầu sản phẩm và dịch vụ (output/production))

Một số nguyên lí được giới thiệu như sau:

  • Only when total production expands faster than the rate of labor force growth plus the rate of productivity increase and minus the rate at which average annual hours fall does the unemployment rate fall.
  • These increases in potential production simply were not matched by increases in demand adequate to maintain steady full employment.
Para 2: Examples of change in employment rates

Cụ thể:

Except for the recession years of 1949, 1954, and 1958, the rate of economic growth exceeded the rate of productivity increase.

However, in the late 1950s productivity and the labor force were increasing more rapidly than usual, while the growth of output was slower than usual. This accounted for the change in employment rates.

–> Như vậy:

  • 1949, 1954 và 1958: the rate of economic growth DID NOT exceed the rate of productivity increase.
  • late 1950s: productivity and the labor force were increasing more rapidly than usual >< the growth of output was slower than usual.
Para 3: How to reduce and contain unemployment (the national purpose)?

Cụ thể:

  • But if part of the national purpose is to reduce and contain unemployment, arithmetic is not enough. We must know which of the basic factors we can control and which we wish to control.
  • Unemployment would have risen more slowly or fallen more rapidly if productivity had increased more slowly, or the labor force had increased more slowly, or the hours of work had fallen more steeply, or total output had grown more rapidly. These are not independent factors, however, and a change in any of them might have caused changes in the others.
Para 4: One method to control unemployment = reduce the growth of productivity (not good)

Cụ thể:

A society can choose to reduce the growth of productivity, and it can probably find ways to frustrate its own creativity. However, while a reduction in the growth of productivity at the expense of potential output might result in higher employment in the short run, the long-run effect on the national interest would be disastrous.

Para 5: Information regarding labor force

Cụ thể:

We must also give consideration to the fact that hidden beneath national averages is continuous movement into, out of, between, and within labor markets. For example, 15 years ago, the average number of persons in the labor force was 73.4 million, with about 66.7 million employed and 3.9 million unemployed. Yet 14 million experienced some term of unemployment in that year. Some were new entrants to the labor force; others were laid off temporarily. The remainder were those who were permanently or indefinitely severed from their jobs. Thus, the average number unemployed during a year understates the actual volume of involuntary displacement that occurs.

Para 6: Positive fiscal, monetary, and manpower policies will be needed in the future to help control high unemployment.

Cụ thể:

  • High unemployment is not an inevitable result of the pace of technological change but the consequence of passive public policy.
    • We can anticipate a moderate increase in the labor force accompanied by a slow and irregular decline in hours of work. It follows that the output of the economy—and the aggregate demand to buy it—must grow by more than 4 percent a year just to prevent the unemployment rate from rising, and by even more if the unemployment rate is to fall further. Yet our economy has seldom, if ever, grown at a rate greater than 3.5 percent for any extended length of time.
  • We have no cause of complacency. Positive fiscal, monetary, and manpower policies will be needed in the future.
  • Main point: Positive fiscal, monetary, and manpower policies will be needed in the future to help control high unemployment. (Last paragraph)

Câu 1: The primary purpose of the passage is to

Prethink: Main point = Positive fiscal, monetary, and manpower policies will be needed in the future to help control high unemployment.

Tất nhiên ta ưu tiên đáp án nào thể hiện ý chính cả bài trước khi chọn ý chính của last paragraph.

Vậy đáp án đúng là C. Call for the application of positive economic control policies in the years that lie ahead

Câu 2: According to the passage, if the labor force does not grow and there is no decline in the average number of hours worked, under which of the following conditions will the employment rate inevitably rise?

Prethink: Lưu ý, ở đây hỏi: Nếu labor forces không tăng và average number of hours worked không giảm thì EMPLOYMENT RATE TĂNG khi nào?

Ở para 1, ta có:

  • As productivity rises, less labor is required per dollar of national product, or more goods and services can be produced with the same number of man-hours. If output does not grow, employment will certainly fall; if production increases more rapidly than productivity (less any decline in average hours worked), employment must rise.

Như vậy, chỉ cần production tăng nhiều hơn productivity tăng thì employment sẽ tăng.

Vậy đáp án đúng là E. Production increases more rapidly than output per man-hour.

Extra notes:

A . Total production expands faster than the total demand for goods and services.

  • Trường hợp này, khả năng các công ty sẽ cần phải sa thải nhân viên vì cung vượt cầu nên umemployment rate tăng hay employment rate giảm –> Opposite –> Loại

B . The total demand for goods and services and productivity both rise.

  • Ta cần biết bên nào tăng nhiều hơn để xác định –> Loại

C . Output per man-hour and gross national product both rise.

  • Productivity và output đều tăng –> Tương tự B –> Loại

D . Productivity increases more rapidly than production.

  • Trường hợp này có khả năng dẫn tới tăng unemployment rate vì không cần thêm người lao động –> Opposite –> Loại

Câu 3: It can be inferred from the passage than in the late 1950s, which of the following occurred?

Prethink: Ở para 2, ta đã rút ra được ở Summary là:

  • late 1950s: productivity and the labor force were increasing more rapidly than usual >< the growth of output was slower than usual.

Ta kiểm tra các tình huống được hỏi:

I . The growth in output was less than 3.5 percent.

  • Ở para 3, ta có: It follows that the output of the economy—and the aggregate demand to buy it—must grow by more than 4 percent a year just to prevent the unemployment rate from rising, and by even more if the unemployment rate is to fall further. Yet our economy has seldom, if ever, grown at a rate greater than 3.5 percent for any extended length of time.

Như vậy, câu này đúng vì ta biết late 1950s thì output rate tăng chậm hơn bình thường –> Giữ lại

II . The average number of hours worked declined.

  • Ở para 1, ta có định nghĩa productivity: As productivity rises, less labor is required per dollar of national product, or more goods and services can be produced with the same number of man-hours. (năng suất tăng thì cùng 1 giờ sẽ sản xuất được nhiều sản phẩm hơn)
  • Ở đây ta có, productivity tăng nhanh hơn bình thường (làm việc hiệu quả quá cao) nên the average number of hours worked (thời gian làm việc trung bình) GIẢM –> Giữ lại

III . The increase in output per man-hour was greater than usual.

. Câu này nói productivity tăng nhanh hơn bình thường –> Thông tin cho sẵn –> Giữ lại

Vậy đáp án đúng là E. I, II, and III

Câu 4: It can be inferred from the passage that during the recession years of 1949, 1954, and 1958, which of the following most likely occurred?

Prethink: Ở para 2, ta đã rút ra được ở Summary là:

  • 1949, 1954 và 1958: the rate of economic growth (hay chính là output) DID NOT exceed the rate of productivity increase.

Kết hợp với nguyên lí ở para 1:

  • As productivity rises, less labor is required per dollar of national product, or more goods and services can be produced with the same number of man-hours. If output does not grow, employment will certainly fall; if production increases more rapidly than productivity (less any decline in average hours worked), employment must rise.

Như vậy, khả năng lớn là employment sẽ giảm hay unemployment tăng

Vậy đáp án đúng là E. The rate of unemployment increased.

Extra notes: Các đáp án còn lại hoặc không được cung cấp thông tin (như A) hoặc phát biểu thông tin đối lập (như B, C và D)

Câu 5: It can be inferred from the passage that if a policy to increase employment by reducing the growth of productivity at the expense of potential output were adopted, the author most likely would regard it as

Prethink: Ở para 4, ta có:

However, while a reduction in the growth of productivity at the expense of potential output might result in higher employment in the short run, the long-run effect on the national interest would be disastrous.

Như vậy tác giả nghĩ phương pháp này có hại về lâu dài

Dùng POE, ta được đáp án đúng là D. Insidious (Sounds good at the beginning but disaster in the long-run)

Câu 6: It can be inferred from the passage that, according to the author, the actual number of people who experience some term of unemployment during any given year

Prethink: Ở para 5, ta có:

  • For example, 15 years ago, the average number of persons in the labor force was 73.4 million, with about 66.7 million employed and 3.9 million unemployed. Yet 14 million experienced some term of unemployment in that year. Some were new entrants to the labor force; others were laid off temporarily. The remainder were those who were permanently or indefinitely severed from their jobs. Thus, the average number unemployed during a year understates the actual volume of involuntary displacement that occurs. (Con số trung bình không phản ánh đúng số lượng người thực sự có chịu thất nghiệp)

Vậy đáp án đúng là C. Exceeds the average number unemployed during that year (actual = 14 million > report = 3.9 million)

Extra notes:

A . Is the difference between the number of persons in the labor force and the number of persons employed that year

  • Ta thấy trừ ra cũng không đúng con số thực sự –> Loại

B . Does not reflect movement into, out of, between, and within labor markets

  • Không có thông tin về actual number như thế này. Thậm chí ở đầu đoạn có: “We must also give consideration to the fact that hidden beneath national averages is continuous movement into, out of, between, and within labor markets” nên có vẻ phải nói ngược lại –> Loại

D . Overstate the volume of involuntary displacement that occurs during the year

  • Không có thông tin về actual number như thế này. Cần đối chiếu kĩ, người ta nói rằng: “the average number unemployed during a year understates the actual volume of involuntary displacement that occurs” –> Loại

E . Is impossible to calculate

  • Quá extreme –> Không có thông tin (và trong bài cũng có thể đưa ra con số 14tr rồi) –> Loại

Câu 7: The passage contains information that answers all of the following questions EXCEPT:

Prethink: Đối với câu này, ta cần dùng POE và tìm thông tin trong bài:

A . What is gross national product?

  • Para 1: GNP = total final expenditure for goods and services corrected for price changes

–> Loại

B . What effect does a change in productivity invariably have on gross national product?

  • Ta không thấy mối quan hệ giữa productivity và GNP được đề cập
  • Ta chỉ có: Unless gross national product (total final expenditure for goods and services corrected for price changes) rises more rapidly than the sum of productivity increase and labor force growth (again modified for any change in hours of work), the increase in employment will be inadequate to absorb the growth in the labor force. (vẫn không có thông tin gì về việc productivity ảnh hưởng đến GNP)

–> Giữ lại

C . Under what conditions might employment rise in the short run?

. Para 4: while a reduction in the growth of productivity at the expense of potential output might result in higher employment in the short run

–> Loại

D . What effect does an increase in output and a decrease in number of hours worked have on productivity?

  • Para 1: As productivity rises, less labor is required per dollar of national product, or more goods and services can be produced with the same number of man-hours.

–> Như vậy, tăng output và giảm giờ làm việc nghĩa là tăng productivity total output / total number of hours worked)

–> Loại

E . What was the average number of people unemployed in 1962?

  • Para 5: For example, 15 years ago, the average number of persons in the labor force was 73.4 million, with about 66.7 million employed and 3.9 million unemployed.
  • Đầu passage: The following passage was written in 1977

–> Như vậy thông tin ở para 5 là của năm 1962

–> Loại

Vậy đáp án đúng là B. What effect does a change in productivity invariably have on gross national product?

Câu 8: Which of the following best describes the organization of the fifth paragraph of the passage?

Prethink: Xem lại para 5, ta thấy:

  • We must also give consideration to the fact that hidden beneath national averages is continuous movement into, out of, between, and within labor markets. For example, 15 years ago, the average number of persons in the labor force was 73.4 million, with about 66.7 million employed and 3.9 million unemployed. Yet 14 million experienced some term of unemployment in that year. Some were new entrants to the labor force; others were laid off temporarily. The remainder were those who were permanently or indefinitely severed from their jobs. Thus, the average number unemployed during a year understates the actual volume of involuntary displacement that occurs.

Tác giả mở đầu bằng 1 câu phát biểu –> đưa ra ví dụ làm rõ câu phát biểu –> kết luận lại

Vậy đáp án đúng là D. A statement is made, data are provided to illustrate and amplify the statement, and a conclusion is drawn.

Extra notes:

A . An assertion is made, data are provided to support it, and the assertion is reiterated in different words.

  • Từ đầu đến trước đoạn in đậm đúng nhưng phần in đậm bị sai. Câu kết luận không hề viết lại câu đầu đoạn.

Câu 9: Which of the following proposals best responds to the author’s concerns?

Prethink: Trước tiên ta cần biết mối quan tâm của tác giả là gì để đưa ra kế hoạch kiến nghị. Ở đoạn cuối ta có:

  • We can anticipate a moderate increase in the labor force accompanied by a slow and irregular decline in hours of work. It follows that the output of the economy—and the aggregate demand to buy it—must grow by more than 4 percent a year just to prevent the unemployment rate from rising, and by even more if the unemployment rate is to fall further. Yet our economy has seldom, if ever, grown at a rate greater than 3.5 percent for any extended length of time.
  • We have no cause of complacency. Positive fiscal, monetary, and manpower policies will be needed in the future.

–> Như vậy, tác giả cần output tăng trường hơn 4% để kiểm soát tỉ lệ thất nghiệp nhưng tỉ lệ tăng này khó xảy ra nên cần chính phủ có những chính sách phù hợp trong tương lai.

Vậy đáp án đúng là D. The government should manage the economy carefully.

Câu 10: Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?

Prethink: Main point = Positive fiscal, monetary, and manpower policies will be needed in the future to help control high unemployment.

Vậy đáp án đúng là A. We can and must take steps to ensure that the unemployment rate does not continue to rise as our population and our use of technology increase.

Extra notes: Các đáp án còn lại (B, C và D) dù có nói đúng 1 phần ý của passage nhưng lại không thể hiện ý chính của passage vốn là nội dung last paragraph. Riêng đáp án E là thông tin không được cung cấp nên ta có thể loại nhanh.

Hẹn gặp lại các bạn trong bài chia sẻ kì tới! Mọi thắc mắc liên quan đến các đáp án sai trong từng câu hỏi, các bạn có thể để lại comments bên dưới nhé

P/s: Bài giải gợi ý trong series này chủ yếu tập trung cải thiện phần Pre-think, tức ta luôn cố gắng hết sức để tự nghĩ trước câu trả lời đúng rồi tìm đáp án gần nhất trong 5 answer choices.

Tham gia Facebook Group Hội ôn luyện GMAT, GRE, Apply Cao học để được cập nhật, thảo luận về các chủ đề liên quan ngay!

>> Tham khảo thông tin khóa luyện GMAT cùng Kaplan và Clever Academy tại ĐÂY <<<

Trần Thị Huỳnh Như – Giảng viên GMAT tại Clever Academy

Profile giảng viên

Leave a Reply