December 8, 2022
GMAT-RC-CHALLENGE-P30

GMAT-RC-CHALLENGE-P30

Tiếp tục series 36 hardest GMAT RC passages, hôm nay chúng ta hãy thử sức với bài đọc số 30 nhé. 

Để đạt được hiệu quả tối đa khi đọc bài chia sẻ này, các bạn vui lòng:

Bước 1: Vào link gmatclub để làm bài đọc

Bước 2: Check lại đáp án của mình với quick explanations tại bài viết này

Passage 30/36:  A review of the treatment of female characters in Chinese fiction reveals that Chinese social attitudes have undergone dramatic changes …

LINK BÀI ĐỌC TẠI ĐÂY

RECAP các bước làm bài

Bước 1: Đọc bài đọc và dừng lại vài giây tóm tắt ý chính ngay sau mỗi đoạn nhỏ

Bước 2: Phát biểu Main Point / Primary Purpose hay nội dung chính của bài

Bước 3: Đọc câu hỏi, xác định vị trí liên quan trong Passage và Pre-think đáp án (Tuyệt đối không đọc đáp án trước, trừ khi câu hỏi không gợi ý được ta cần xem lại phần nào trong Passage HOẶC bạn đã nhớ rõ Passage như in)

Bước 4: Đọc nhanh answer choices và chọn đáp án gần với Pre-think nhất

Bây giờ, chúng ta cùng giải Passage 30/36 nhé!

Đáp án Passage 30/36

Summary

Para 1: A review of the treatment of female characters in Chinese fiction reveals that Chinese social attitudes have undergone dramatic changes

Cụ thể:

  • A review of the treatment of female characters in Chinese fiction reveals that Chinese social attitudes have undergone dramatic changes. Prior to the twentieth century, women in novels were stereotypes lacking any features that made them unique individuals and were also subject to numerous restrictions imposed by the male-dominated culture. While authors of these novels often sympathetically portrayed heroines who experienced social oppression, they never questioned the position of women in Chinese culture.
  • Not until the early twentieth century did Chinese fiction focus on women’s emancipation, and then the subject became the backdrop of most novels that addressed the issue.
  • After the Communist party established the People’s Republic in the late 1940’s, attitudes changed again: the gaining of women’s rights was treated as one of many ongoing social revolutions, although from the beginning Communist party policy subordinated the women’s struggle to the class struggle.
Para 2: Female characters in fiction prior to 1949

Cụ thể:

In spite of the fact that the authors who dealt with women’s issues prior to 1949 agreed in principle that reforms had to be instituted, the outlook they depicted for reform was bleak.

  • In their novels, a pattern recurs: after an initial break with social conventions, women falter in their goals or tragically end their lives, defeated by the overwhelming pressures of those conventions.

If some writers viewed the emancipation of women as an achievable end, most tended to regard it as related to other seemingly unattainable social changes. Individualism alone would not lead to emancipation.

  • Taking his cue from Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House, in which the heroine, Nora, leaves home because she resents her husband’s treating her like a child, the writer Lu Hsün warned that Nora would need money to support herself; she must have economic rights in order to survive.
Para 3: Female characters in fiction after late1940’s

Cụ thể:

  • In contrast to this view of women in fiction in the early part of the century, fiction after the late 1940’s is not so pessimistic. The deeper problems of socially prescribed roles for wife and daughter, for example, are not explored, but greater freedom for women is presented as the product of collective action. Novels of this period focus primarily on two specific issues: voluntary marriage and equal participation in work. After Mao Tse-tung’s announcement of guidelines for a literature of socialist realism, this emphasis on women’s rights became more pronounced. Most women in fiction after 1949 conform to the goals set for them by Communist party policy but still experience conflicts within family and group relationships as a result of the double burden placed on them by their domestic and job roles. Fiction of this period also depicts the problems of compensating women adequately for their work and of giving them access to jobs previously performed by men.
  • Although these novels forcefully suggest that such reforms face much resistance, all clearly conclude that eventually this resistance can be overcome. And, in fact, the past two decades have seen the beginnings of some of these reforms in the lives of women in the People’s Republic of China.

Main point: Describe female characters in 20th Chinese fictions

Câu 1: The passage is primarily concerned with discussing which of the following subjects?

Prethink: Main point = Describe female characters in 20th Chinese fictions

Vậy đáp án đúng là E. The characterization of women in twentieth-century Chinese literature

Câu 2:  According to the passage, post-1949 Chinese fiction differs from earlier twentieth-century Chinese fiction in that it

Prethink: Ở para 3, ta có:

  • In contrast to this view of women in fiction in the early part of the century, fiction after the late 1940’s is not so pessimistic. (Không quá bi quan)

Vậy đáp án đúng là B. views the possibility of social change with greater optimism

Câu 3: The author mentions Lu Hsiin’s comments on A Doll’s House in order to make the point that

Prethink: Ở para 2, ta có:

  • If some writers viewed the emancipation of women as an achievable end, most tended to regard it as related to other seemingly unattainable social changes. Individualism alone would not lead to emancipation. Taking his cue from Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House, in which the heroine, Nora, leaves home because she resents her husband’s treating her like a child, the writer Lu Hsün warned that Nora would need money to support herself; she must have economic rights in order to survive.

–> Như vậy, lời bình của Lu Hsiin là để support cho ý lớn của 2 câu liền trước. Ta có thể dùng POE như sau:

A . individualism, as presented in the play, benefits only the individual, not the community in which he or she lives

–> Ta không có thông tin về việc individualism sẽ mang lại lợi ích cho ai ? –> Loại

 

B . Chinese writers looked to Western literature for evidence of pressures of social conventions similar to those pressures in their own culture

–> Không có thông tin về Western literature –> Loại

C . Chinese writers felt the need to focus on the practical problems presented by a particular social environment as well as on personal needs

–> Hợp lí –> Giữ lại

D . the preoccupation in Western literature with women’s emancipation blinded writers and thinkers to the broader social issues involved

–> Không có thông tin về Western literature –> Loại

E . the treatment of women’s emancipation in Western literature has little relevance to Chinese literature

–> Không có thông tin về Western literature –> Loại

Vậy đáp án đúng là C. Chinese writers felt the need to focus on the practical problems presented by a particular social environment as well as on personal needs

Câu 4: The passage provides information for answering which of the following questions?

Prethink: Đối với câu này ta cần đi tìm thử câu trả lời cho từng câu hỏi bên dưới như sau:

A . How did the government of the People’s Republic of China deal with resistance to their policy of adequately compensating women for their work?

  • Ở para 3, ta có được nhắc về “adequately compensating women for their work” nhưng không đề cập chính phủ xử lí resistance với chính sách này như thế nào? –> Loại

B . What are some of the problems encountered by female characters in novels describing life in the People’s Republic of China after 1949 ?

  • Ở para 3, ta có: Most women in fiction after 1949 conform to the goals set for them by Communist party policy but still experience conflicts within family and group relationships as a result of the double burden placed on them by their domestic and job roles. Fiction of this period also depicts the problems of compensating women adequately for their work and of giving them access to jobs previously performed by men.

–> Có trả lời được câu hỏi –> Giữ lại

C . What were the goals set for Chinese women by Communist party policy?

  • Ở para 3, ta có: Most women in fiction after 1949 conform to the goals set for them by Communist party policy

–> Tuy nhiên, các goals đó là gì thì lại không được nói rõ –> Loại

D . Do the stereotypes prevalent in Chinese fiction before the twentieth century still appear in Chinese literature?

  • Không có thông tin về vấn đề này –> Loại

E . What initiated the first changes in the depiction of women in Chinese literature?

  • Ở para 1, ta có first changes: Not until the early twentieth century did Chinese fiction focus on women’s emancipation, and then the subject became the backdrop of most novels that addressed the issue nhưng lại không có thông tin về cái gì / nguyên nhân nào khởi đầu những thay đổi đầu tiên trong việc mô tả phụ nữ trong Chinese literature –> Loại

Vậy đáp án đúng là B. What are some of the problems encountered by female characters in novels describing life in the People’s Republic of China after 1949?

Câu 5: According to the passage, the struggle of Chinese women for liberation is portrayed in post-1949 Chinese literature as

Prethink: Ở para 1, ta có:

  • After the Communist party established the People’s Republic in the late 1940’s, attitudes changed again: the gaining of women’s rights was treated as one of many ongoing social revolutions, although from the beginning Communist party policy subordinated the women’s struggle to the class struggle.

–> Như vậy women’s struggle được xem là một phần của class struggle

Vậy đáp án đúng là D. part of a much larger struggle for liberation

Câu 6: Which of the following plots exemplifies what the author describes as the pessimism of the Chinese literature written between 1900 and 1949?

Prethink: Ở para 2, ta đã hiểu rằng thời kì 1900-1949, phụ nữ trong văn học được mô tả với kết cục khá ảm đạm / bleak (In their novels, a pattern recurs: after an initial break with social conventions, women falter in their goals or tragically end their lives, defeated by the overwhelming pressures of those conventions.) nên ta cần tìm một plot thể hiện sự tiêu cực này.

Vậy đáp án đúng là A. A woman trained as an economist takes a posi- tion in her field, only to relinquish it because she realizes she cannot overcome her male colleagues’ antagonism toward professional women.

Câu 7: Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?

Prethink: Para 3 đang nói về Female characters in fiction after late1940’s nên ta đoán rằng ta có thể tiếp tục khai thác nội dung này thông qua ví dụ.

Ta cần dùng POE như sau:

A . The subject of women’s emancipation, which had germinated years before, surfaced in public debate in the period after 1919.

  • Mốc thời gian không khớp để tiếp nối para 3 –> Loại

B . The pessimistic view of the emancipation of women in the 1920’s was dispelled when it was seen that emancipation could be achieved by working with a series of limited and specific goals.

  • Nội dung này quay lại para 2 nên không phù hợp để tiếp nối –> Loại

C . A vivid reflection of the changes that occurred in Chinese fiction is found in Lo Pin-chi’s novel, Mother Wang (1953).

  • Ví dụ một novel viết năm 1953 –> Phù hợp mốc thời gian –> Giữ lại

D . In an interesting reversal of the problems produced by the generation gap, Ju Chihchiian’s novel, Wish Fulfilled (1959), depicts a son’s difficulty in adjusting to his mother’s newly acquired job and independence.

  • Trong bài chưa nhắc gì đến generation gap nên không phù hợp bằng C. Ngoài ra, nội dung tập trung vào son mà không phải là mother (female character) –> Loại

E . Recently written Chinese fiction, unlike earlier works, is didactic and not philosophical.

  • Nói về chủ đề phong cách –> Không liên quan –> Loại

Vậy đáp án đúng là C. A vivid reflection of the changes that occurred in Chinese fiction is found in Lo Pin-chi’s novel, Mother Wang (1953).

Câu 8: The passage suggests that the author would most probably agree with which of the following statements about the relationship between Chinese novels written after 1949 and life in China during that period?

Prethink: Ở para 3, ta có:

  • After Mao Tse-tung’s announcement of guidelines for a literature of socialist realism, this emphasis on women’s rights became more pronounced. Most women in fiction after 1949 conform to the goals set for them by Communist party policy …

Vậy đáp án đúng là C. The novels provided government-sanctioned role models for citizens.

Extra notes: Việc dùng POE cũng giúp ta dễ dàng chọn được đáp án cuối cùng là C vì một số đáp án đề cập thông tin không được nhắc trong bài như B và D hay nói không đúng theo thông tin bài đọc như A và E.

Hẹn gặp lại các bạn trong bài chia sẻ kì tới! Mọi thắc mắc liên quan đến các đáp án sai trong từng câu hỏi, các bạn có thể để lại comments bên dưới nhé.

P/s: Bài giải gợi ý trong series này chủ yếu tập trung cải thiện phần Pre-think, tức ta luôn cố gắng hết sức để tự nghĩ trước câu trả lời đúng rồi tìm đáp án gần nhất trong 5 answer choices.

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